How can a small Internet Service Provider (ISP) in Pennsylvania become the cause of millions of sites around the world? It happened on June 24, 2019 when users were left around the world so they could not reach the web more.
The root cause is the dissection of Cloudfire, which is one of the leading content hosts on the Internet, depending on the affected sites.
Clouddlare tracked the problem of a regional ISP in Pennsylvania, who accidentally announced on the rest of the internet that the best ways to access Cloudflare were through their small network.
It gave ISP a large part of global traffic, which inspected its limited capacity and restrained the reach of cloudfire on the rest of the Internet. As mentioned by Cloudflare, the internet was equal to a full highway on the neighborhood road.
This incident highlighted the magnitude of the Internet. In 2017 alone, there were approximately 14,000 such accidents.
Given that it is very important for a large part of the economic and social life of the world, should the network not only be designed to withstand short hiccups but also to withstand major disasters, and to transform minor problems into many problems To stop?
Management bodies like the European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) have long warned about the risks of such incidents due to global internet failure. However, the internet is still fragile.
Like the street network, the internet has highways and intersections, with cable and router.
The navigation system that manages data flow around the network is called the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). When you visit this site, the BGP specifies the path through which location data will be transferred to your device.
The problem is that BGP was prepared only as a temporary solution, “good enough” solution when the Internet was growing rapidly in the late 1980s.
After this, they proved to be good enough to help the network maintain large scale and became part of every primary router that manages the flow of data on major internet routes.
But it has not been made keeping in mind the security, and the mechanisms have been added to ensure that the paths sent by BGP are valid. As a result, routing errors are not detected until they cause the crowd and obstruction.
Worse, anyone who has access to the backbone router (which is trivial for a person with the right knowledge and budget) can disguise legitimate traffic, disrupt services and make fake ways to tap communication.
This means that the modern Internet operates using an unsafe protocol which is used daily to organize communication with governments, financial institutions, weapon makers and coded currencies, often inspired by politics. – happens in the form of part of the war.
These problems have been known since at least 1998, when a group of hackers explained to the US Congress how easy it was to settle online communication.
However, little has changed. It was found that deploying necessary cryptographic solutions was difficult to replace the mid-flight planes.
In the case of actual flight, such as the recent problems with Boeing 737 Max, regulators have the power to frame the whole fleet until it is repaired. But there is no central authority on the internet.
It is the owner of various parts of the infrastructure and is managed by various institutions including corporations, governments and universities.
Conflicts between players’ individual research, which often have competitive interests, mean that they do not have the incentive to make their own share of the Internet.
The organization will have to bear heavy deployment costs and operating risks which come with switching to new technology, but it will not take any advantage unless a significant mass of other networks do so.
The most realistic solution is to develop security protocols that do not require global coordination. But efforts to do this have also been interrupted by decentralized ownership of the Internet.
Operators have limited knowledge of what happens outside their network because companies’ desire is to keep their business confidential.
Consequently, the most important communication infrastructure in our society is not a complete sight on any day. It underpaces the effort to design Internet behavior, making it difficult to design and evaluate dependable solutions.
Direct effects of this disappointing situation on national security have prompted government agencies to speed up their activities to protect important Internet infrastructure.
For example, the National Cyber Space Center (NCSC) has recently launched the active Cyber Defense Program (ACD), which places the security of internet guidance among its top priorities.